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Pablo Picasso 1881-1973

Birth, youth and first steps

CHRONOLOGY. Robert McDonald Parker

25 October.
 Born in Malaga, Spain, the first child of Don José Ruiz Blasco (1838-1913) and María Picasso López (1855-1939).

December. Birth of Pablo's first sister, Lola (María de los Dolores Ruiz Picasso, 1884-1958). 
Earthquake in Malaga kills more than 600 people.

October. Birth of his second sister, Conchita (María de la Concepción Ruiz Picasso, 1887-1895). 

September. Arrives with his family in Corunna, where his father has been appointed to teach art at the fine arts academy. 
Enters the Instituto da Guarda.

October. Enters the fine arts academy and studies decorative drawing under his father. His student number is: 88

October. Studies life drawing at the Instituto da Guarda in Corunna, where his student number is: 11.

16 September. Creates his own newspaper, illustrated with portraits and caricatures.
October. Copies antique sculptures from plaster casts at the academy. 
Sketches portraits of his family, especially his parents, and paints his first portraits of them and others.
Winter. Paints, in Corunna, what are considered his first serious portraits.

10 January. His sister Conchita (1887-1895) dies of diphtheria in Corunna. 
Late Spring. Ruiz Picasso family leaves Corunna. 
Visits the Prado for the first time and sketches works by Diego de Silva y Velázquez (1599-1660).
Summer. Returns to Malaga.
Autumn. Enters Barcelona's school of fine arts, "La Llotja" and lives nearby with his family at calle Cristina, 3.

Executes his first large academic painting, The First Communion (Museu Picasso, Barcelona, MPB 110.001).
Summer. Paints bullfights and landscapes during his vacation in Malaga. 
Moves with his family to calle de la Merced, 3, and takes his first studio nearby at calle de la Plata, 4, that he shares with his friend from art school, Manuel Pallarès (1876-1974).
Autumn. Continues his studies in Barcelona at La Llotja.

Receives an honorable mention and a gold medal when his painting Science and Charity, 1897 (Museu Picasso, Barcelona, MPB 110.046), is exhibited in Madrid and Malaga.
October. Passes the entrance exam to study at the Royal Academy of San Fernando in Madrid. 
Spends much time at the Prado where he studies the work of spanish artists of the Golden Age, in particular Diego de Silva y Velázquez (1599-1660) and Domenicos Theotocopolus, called El Greco (1541-1614).

June. Falls sick with scarlet fever, leaves Madrid and travels to Barcelona. 
Travels to Horta de San Juan, a remote village between Catalonia and Aragon, to visit Manuel Pallarès. 

February. Returns to Barcelona and finds a studio at Carrer de Escudillers Blancs, 2, mixing with the artists who frequent the café-cabarets such as Els Quatre Gats. 
Meets Jaime Sabartés (1882-1968), a Catalan writer who would later become Picasso's personal secretary.

Shares an artist's studio in Barcelona at calle Riera de San Juan, 17, with Carles Casagemas (1881-1901). 
Pulls his first engraving of a picador ([Geiser/]Baer 1)-known as El zurdo (or The Left Hander) because of its reversed image-with the assistance of spanish artist and engraver Ricard Canals (1876-1931).
1 February. First personal exhibition of Picasso's works in Els Quatre Gats showing portraits of friends such as Jaime Sabartés, Manuel Pallarès, and Carles Casagemas and of established Barcelona artists such as Ramón Casas (1866-1932) and Santiago Rusiñol (1861-1931).
October. Travels to Paris for the first time in the company of Carles Casagemas and stays in the Montmartre studio of Isidre Nonell (1873-1911), a Catalan painter. 
Meets his first art dealer Pedro Mañach.
December. Travels to Barcelona and Malaga with Casagemas

Blue period

Returns to Madrid.
17 February. Learns, while in Madrid, of the suicide in a Parisian café of his friend Carles Casagemas (1881-1901). 
Creates an art magazine, Arte Joven, in Madrid with the Catalan writer Francisco de Asis Soler (died 1903).
April. Returns to Barcelona after having traveled to Malaga and Madrid.
May. Travels to Paris for the second time and moves into the old studio of Casagemas at 130, boulevard de Clichy, near Montmartre. 
Begins paintings on the theme of Parisian night-life.
25 June. Exhibits for the first time in Paris at the gallery of Ambroise Vollard (1868-1939) along with the Basque painter, Francisco de Iturrino (1864-1924). 
Meets the French poet Max Jacob (1876-1944).
9 September. Death of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901).
Autumn. Returns to Barcelona where he paints the body of his work from the Blue period. 
Introduces theme of the Harlequin and maternity into his work.

January. Rents a studio at calle Nueva, 6, (now calle Conde del Asalto) in Barcelona and makes his first sculptures (Spies 1,1a), both of seated figures.
April. Exhibits works at the gallery of Berthe Weill in Paris.
October. Leaves for Paris in the company of painter and art critic Sebastià Junyer-Vidal (1865-1908), the sculptor Julio González (1876-1942), and painter Josep Rocarol (1882-1961). 
Lives at the Hôtel Maroc on the rue de Seine and then briefly with Max Jacob on the boulevard Voltaire.
15 November. Exhibits in a group exhibition at the gallery of Berthe Weill in Paris and receives an enthusiastic critique from French poet and critic Charles Morice (1861-1919).

 Returns to Barcelona and takes his former studio on the calle Riera de San Juan, 17. 
Moves into a studio at calle del Comercio, 28.
October. Opening of the first Salon d'Automne in Paris, an annual exhibition created to present the best in contemporary art to the public. The initial exhibition was devoted to Paul Gauguin (1848-1903), who died a few months earlier on 8 May.

May. Arrives in Paris and finds a studio in a decrepit building in Montmartre called the "Bateau-Lavoir" by Max Jacob for its resemblance to the similarly named laundry boats on the Seine. He keeps a studio in the Bateau-Lavoir from May 1904 until September 1909 and then again from winter 1911 until spring 1912.
Frequents the cabaret Le Lapin Agile in Montmartre and the Cirque Médrano, which provide him with amusement and subjects for his works. 
Meets Madeleine, a model important in the artist's transition to the Rose period.
Creates with the assistance of Ricard Canals his second engraved work, Le Repas Frugal ([Geiser/]Ba er 2), now considered a masterpiece.
Late summer. Meets Fernande Olivier (1881-1966) and begins liaison, which lasts intermittently until 1912. 
Becomes friends with the poets Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) and André Salmon (1881-1969) and meets collectors such as the German Wilhelm Uhde (1874-1947).

Rose period

25 February.
 Participates in a group show at the Galerie Serrurier in Paris on the theme of the circus. 
Visits frequently the Cirque Médrano and continues to depict circus clowns and acrobats. 
Creates Les Saltimbanques, a suite of engravings.
Summer. Travels to Holland and visits Schoorl, a traditional village in northern Holland, where he paints The Three Dutch Women (MNAM, Paris).
November. Meets the American collectors Leo (1872-1947) and Gertrude Stein (1874-1946) through the Parisian art dealer Clovis Sagot.

Early March. Purchase of his first Rose-period paintings by Ambroise Vollard.
May. Travels to Barcelona and Gosol in the company of Fernande Olivier.
Summer. Sculpts in wood.
22 October. Death of Paul Cézanne (1839-1906), ten works by Cézanne are exhibited at the Salon d'Automne in Paris. 
Influences of Iberian and African art apparent in his work after his summer in Gosol.

January. Sketches and begins work on Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (MOMA, New York), which he finishes in July. 
Meets the French artist Georges Braque (1876-1963).
March. Buys unknowingly Iberian sculptures stolen from the Louvre.
Summer. Meets the art dealer and publisher Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler (1884-1979), who becomes one of Picasso's most important dealers.
28 September. Attends a dinner at the Stein house where he meets Alice Toklas (1877-1967).
October. Retrospective of works of Cézanne at the Salon d'Automne. 

Is influenced by the volume and geometric forms of Cézanne'swork and incorporates them into his painting.
June. Suicide at the Bateau-Lavoir of the German painter Wiegels.
August. Stays with Fernande Olivier in La Rue-des-Bois, a tiny village fifty kilometers northwest of Paris, where he makes figure studies and landscapes influenced by Cézanne.
September. Begins close artistic collaboration with Georges Braque that continues until 1914.
November. Gives a banquet in honor of the French artist Henri "Le Douanier" Rousseau (1844-1910) at the Bateau-Lavoir. 
Art critic Louis Vauxcelles announces the new art movement when he describes the work of Braque exhibited at the gallery of Kahnweiler in terms of "cubes."

Analytical Cubism

Travels with Fernande Olivier to Barcelona and, for the second time, to Horta de San Juan, a village associated with his move into Analytical Cubism.
Autumn. Returns to Paris and moves within the Montmartre neighborhood to 11, boulevard de Clichy to live with Fernande Olivier. In a large atelier with a view onto the Avenue Frochot, he creates the majority of his Analytical Cubist works. 
Exhibits for the first time in Germany at the Thannhauser Gallery in Munich. 
Makes angular plaster models, such as Pomme (Apple) (Spies 26), and bronze sculptures, such as Tête de Femme, or Fernande (Head of a Woman, orFernande) (Spies 24), with highly faceted surfaces and exaggerated forms of volume.

Late June.
Travels to Barcelona and Cadaqués with Fernande Olivier.
July. Spends time with André (1880-1954) and Alice Derain in Cadaqués.
Late August. Returns to Paris.
2 September. Death of Henri "Le Douanier" Rousseau (1844-1910).
8 November. Participates in an exhibition Manet and the Post-Impressionistsorganized by Roger Fry at the Grafton Galleries in London. 
Paints portraits of three art dealers during the year: Ambroise Vollard (Z.II*214), Wilhelm Uhde (Z.II*217), and Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler (Z.II*227).

April. Exhibits for the first time in the United States in New York at the Photo-Secession Gallery.
Summer. Spends first summer in Céret (Hôtel du Canigou or Hôtel Armand and the Maison Delcros) with Fernande Olivier and Georges Braque and meets music composer Déodat de Séverac (1873-1921).
September. Returns to Paris before the scandal of the stolen Iberian statues breaks, Apollinaire is briefly imprisoned.
October. Does not exhibit at the Salon d'Automne in the room dedicated to Cubist painting, where the public is shocked by the new painting style. 
Enters into a liaison with Eva Gouel (1885-1915), the muse for Picasso's Ma Jolieworks and returns to a studio at the Bateau-Lavoir, where he will begin his Synthetic Cubist works.


Synthetic Cubism

May. Creates first painted collage, Nature morte à la chaise cannée (or Still Life with Chair Caning) (Musée Picasso, Paris, MP 36).
Early summer. Spends second summer in Céret, this time with Eva. Travels to Avignon and Sorgues, where he stays at the villa Les Clochettes.
July. Is joined in Sorgues by Georges Braque and his wife.
September. Goes to Paris to move his studio from the Bateau-Lavoir in Montmartre to Montparnasse (242, boulevard Raspail) and returns to Sorgues.
October. Begins to work in the Montparnasse studio, where he creates still-life installations of real objects and paper collages, mixing reality and art.
Late autumn. Is inspired by first "paper" collages Georges Braque created in Sorgues and those presented by the spanish painter Juan Gris (1887-1927) at the Section d'or exhibition in Paris in 1912. 
Winter. Travels to Céret and Barcelona.

17 February.
 Has works exhibited at the Armory Show in New York, six paintings and a drawing.
March. Departs with Eva Gouel for Céret, where they are joined by Max Jacob.
3 May. Travels to Barcelona for the funeral of his father, José Ruiz Blasco (1838-1913).
20 June. Returns to Paris.
22 July. Returns to Céret for the third summer.
19 August. Returns to Paris.
September. Moves into an artist's atelier on rue Schoelcher (no. 5 bis) beside the Montparnasse cemetery.

2 March. 
Speculative sale of art works of mostly young artists, including twelve paintings and drawings by Picasso, that attained record prices. The sale was organized by a group of investors -who called themselves La Peau de l'ours (a French expression, meaning to sell what one does not yet own)- headed by the French financier and collector André Level (1863-1946).
June. Departs with Eva for Avignon, where, after staying in a hotel, they reside at 14, rue Saint-Bernard.
2 August. World War I begins.
Autumn. Returns to Paris.

Draws portraits in neoclassical style, inspired by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867), that he introduces progressively into his work and develops from 1918 to 1924. 
Meets French artist and writer Jean Cocteau (1889-1963).
14 December. Death of Eva Gouel (Marcelle Humbert, 1885-1915).

Begins to works on theatrical productions

May. Is introduced by Jean Cocteau to Empresario Sergei Diaghilev (1872-1929) of the Ballets Russes.
Summer. Moves to Montrouge, a suburb south of Paris, where he rents a house at 22, rue Victor-Hugo.

January. Travels to Barcelona and returns to Paris to begin work on stage designs and costumes for the ballet Parade.
February. Leaves for Rome with Jean Cocteau. 
Meets the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) and a dancer from the Ballets Russes Olga Khokhlova (1891-1955). 
Travels to Naples and Pompeii and returns to Paris.
18 May. First performance of Parade at the Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris.
June. Departs with Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes for Madrid and Barcelona.
12 July. Is honored at a banquet in Barcelona given by his artist friends Miquel Utrillo, Ángel de Soto, Ricardo Canals, and Francisco de Iturrino.
November. Returns to Paris and Montrouge with Olga.

Neoclassical period

Spring. Moves with Olga to the Hôtel Lutétia near the lively cafés in Paris's Saint-Germain neighborhood.
18 May. Meets the French novelist Marcel Proust (1871-1922) and Irish writer James Joyce (1882-1941).
12 July. Marries Olga Khokhlova in Paris at the Russian Orthodox Church on the rue Daru.
Mid-summer. Honeymoons in Biarritz in the villa of Eugenia Errazuriz (1860-1952), a fashionable socialite and art patron. 
Accepts offer from the art dealers Paul Rosenberg (1882-1955) and Georges Wildenstein (1892-1963) to act as his agents.
September. Returns with his wife, Olga, to Paris.
9 November. Death of Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918).
Late November. Rents two floors at 23 bis, rue La Boétie next door to the gallery of Paul Rosenberg.

May. Travels to London and stays for three months.
22 July. Designs curtain, scenery, and costumes for the ballet Le Tricorne, first performed in London at the Alhambra Theatre.
Summer. Vacations with Olga in Saint-Raphaël on the Côte d'Azur (residing first at the Hôtel Continental and then at the Hôtel des Bains).
20 October. Exhibits 167 drawings and watercolors of open-window scenes from Saint-Raphaël at the gallery of Paul Rosenberg in Paris. His first lithograph, an image of an open window (Mourlot I), is used for the invitation to the exhibition.
3 December. Death of Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919).

15 May. Designs curtain, scenery, and costumes for the ballet Pulcinella, first performed in Paris at the Théâtre National de l'Opéra.
Summer. Vacations with Olga in Saint-Raphaël at the Hôtel Continental and then in Juan-les-Pins at the Villa Les Sables.

Creates mammoth antique-inspired figures

4 February. Birth of Paul (1921-1975), his son with Olga.
22 May. Designs scenery and costumes for Cuadro Flamenco, a suite of Andalusian dances and songs, first performed in Paris at the Théâtre de la Gaîté-Lyrique.
30 May. Has thirteen works (sequestered by the French government from the German collector Wilhelm Uhde, including a Cubist portrait of Uhde) sold at the Hôtel Drouot.
13-14 June. Has works, sequestered from the Galerie Kahnweiler during the war, sold at the Hôtel Drouot including a Cubist portrait of Kahnweiler. Three additional sales of the Galerie Kahnweiler's inventory take place later this year; all include works by Picasso.
July. Rents a house in Fontainebleau. Publication of Paul Valéry's La Jeune Parque, a book of poems, with a lithographic portrait of the author as frontispiece.
November. Executes an etching, a portrait of the poet Pierre Reverdy (1889-1960) for Cravates de Chanvre, a book of poems published the following year.

First monograph on Picasso, written by Maurice Raynal (1884-1954), is published in France by Éditions Crès.
Summer. Stays in Dinard at the Hôtel des Terrasses and then at the villa Beauregard.
20 December. Collaborates with Jean Cocteau on the scenery of Cocteau's adaptation of Sophocles's Antigone, first produced in Paris at the Théâtre de l'Atelier.

Returns to the theme of the Harlequin and uses it to portray his friend, the painter Jacinto Salvadó, in several paintings.
Summer. Spends summer at the Cap d'Antibes with Olga and Paul.
October. Creates the portrait (a drypoint) of the writer André Breton (1896-1966) for Clair de terre, a book of poems published on 15 November.

Jacques Doucet (1853-1929) purchases Les Demoiselles d'Avignon on the advice of André Breton and Louis Aragon.
15 June. Designs scenery and costumes for the theatrical production of Mercure.
20 June. Creates curtain for the ballet Le Train bleu, first performed at the Théâtre des Champs-Elysées in Paris.
Summer. Vacations in Juan-les-Pins and stays in the villa La Vigie.

Spring. Visits Monte Carlo during the dance season of the Ballets Ruses and draws realistic sketches of the dancers.
Summer. Returns to Juan-les-Pins at the Villa Belle-Rose.
14 November. Exhibits in La Peinture Surréaliste at the Galerie Pierre, the first showing of the Surrealist artists in Paris.

Christian Zervos (1899-1970) publishes the first issue of his art magazine Cahiers d'art.
Summer. Vacations in Juan-les-Pins.
October. Travels to Barcelona.


Begins a ten-year study of bathers

Meets Marie-Thérèse Walter (1909-1977) and begins a secret liaison.
11 May. Death of Juan Gris (1887-1927).
Summer. Vacations in Cannes at the Chalet Madrid with Olga and Paul.

1 January
. Treats the theme of the Minotaur for the first time in the creation of a large collage (MNAM, Paris, Z.II.135).
Summer. Vacations in Dinard at the Hôtel des Terrasses and the villa Les Roches.
Autumn. Works with the Catalan sculptor Julio González and learns how to solder iron.

Continues his collaboration with Julio González.
Summer. Spends vacation in Dinard at the Hôtel Gallic. 
Roger Lacourière (1892-1956) founds a printing atelier where most of Picasso's future printers work and train.

Purchases the château de Boisgeloup, a property in Normandy, where he begins the following year to produce sculpture, particularly large-scale heads of Marie-Thérèse.
Summer. Vacations at Juan-les-Pins and works on a series of still lifes covered with sand.
Autumn. Moves his mistress Marie-Thérèse to an apartment on the rue La Boétie (no. 44) only a few doors away from his apartment with Olga (no. 23 bis).

Works in Boisgeloup

Makes a space for a sculpture studio at Boisgeloup. 
Concentrates on sculpture, continuing to use Marie-Thérèse as model.
Summer. Vacations at Juan-les-Pins at the Villa Chêne-Roc where he paints the villa and makes some of the preliminary sketches used for the engravings in the Vollard Suite. 
Illustrates two books: Ovid's Les Métamorphoses published by Albert Skira and Honoré de Balzac's Le Chef-d'œuvre inconnu published by Ambroise Vollard; both appeared in 1931.

Is featured in a special issue of the magazine Cahiers d'Art.
16 June. Exhibits 236 works, dating from 1901 to 1932, in his first retrospective exhibition, held at the Galerie Georges Petit in Paris.
Summer. Works on sculpture at Boisgeloup.
October. First volume of the catalogue raisonné of Picasso's works, complied by the art historian Christian Zervos, is completed. 
Creates a series of drawings inspired by the Crucifixion by the German painter Mathias Grünewald (ca. 1475-1528).
November. Starts a series of drawings, paintings, and graphic work on the theme of lifesaving (or le sauvetage).

Receives a commission from the publisher Georges Macy to illustrate a modern edition of Aristophanes's Lysistrata, a play from 411 B.C. about Athenian women trying to prevent war. The book is published in 1934.
1 June. Contributes to Albert Skira's first issue of a magazine, Minotaure, for which Picasso creates a collage for the cover illustration (MOMA, New York).
Summer. Vacations in Cannes at the Hôtel Majestic with Olga and Paul.
August. Travels to Barcelona and returns to Paris.
Autumn. Tries to prevent the publication of Fernande Olivier's memoirs, Picasso et ses amis. 
First volume of the catalogue raisonné of Picasso's graphic work, complied by the Swiss art historian Bernhard Geiser (1891-1967), is completed and published this year. 
Collaborates with the printer Roger Lacourière on etchings for the Vollard Suite.

Continues to explore the theme of the artist's studio in engravings.
Summer. Creates series of works -paintings, drawings, and engravings- devoted to bullfighting.
Late summer. Travels to Spain with Olga and Paul.
September. Returns to Paris.

Stops painting for several months and begins writing Surrealist poems.
June. Separates from his wife Olga.
13 July. Asks his friend Jaime Sabartés to become his personal secretary.
Summer. Resides in Boisgeloup, one of his first summers without travel in almost twenty years.
5 September. Birth of Maya, Picasso's daughter with Marie-Thérèse.

Times of war

Meets the painter and photographer, Dora Maar (1907-1997) in Saint-Germain-des-Prés.
25 March. Accompanies Marie-Thérèse and Maya to Juan-les-Pins, where they stay at the Villa Sainte-Geneviève. 
Works with Roger Lacourière on illustrations for Buffon's Histoire Naturelle, which is published in 1942.
18 July. Civil War breaks out in Spain.
August. Vacations in Mougins and Saint-Tropez, where he joins friends such as Roland and Valentine Penrose, Paul and Nusch Éluard. 
Begins a liaison with Dora Maar.
19 September. Picasso is appointed to the directorship of the Museo del Prado.
Autumn.Takes a studio in Temblay-sur-Mauldre loaned by Ambroise Vollard and lives there with Marie-Thérèse and Maya during his separation from Olga.

Creates a series of engravings and a poem on the dream and lie of Franco (Sueño y Mentira de Franco). 
Moves into 7, rue des Grands-Augustins and starts working there from early May. 
Is asked by the Republican Government of Spain to paint a mural for the spanish Pavilion at the Exposition Internationale in Paris.
26 April. Aerial bombing of Guernica, a Basque village, by the German army.
May. Begins sketches for Guernica. Dora Maar photographs the evolution of the painting up to its installation at the spanish Pavilion in mid-June.
12 July. Inauguration of the Spanish Pavilion at the Exposition Internationale in Paris.
Summer. Departs for Mougins with Dora Maar and stays at the Hôtel Vaste Horizon. 
Selects the final 100 sheets for the Vollard Suite from the etchings made since 1930, when the project was conceived.
December. Acquisition of Les Demoiselles d'Avignon by the Museum of Modern Art in New York.

Treats the rooster as a principal subject in paintings, drawingsand pastels.
Summer. Spends summer in Mougins, again at the Hôtel Vaste Horizon, with Dora Maar. 
Madoura ceramic factory, owned by Georges and Suzanne Ramié, opens in Vallauris during the year.

13 January. Death of Picasso's mother, María Picasso-López (1855-1939).
21 January. Paints Dora Maar and Marie-Thérèse Walter in the same pose.
1 April. End of Spanish Civil War.
Summer. Spends part of the summer in Antibes with Dora Maar. Marie-Thérèse and Maya are in Royan at the Villa Gerbier-de-Jonc.
June. Signs first examples of the Vollard Suite, produced by Roger Lacourière in a print run totaling 303 copies on various sized paper and paper stock.
22 July. Returns to Paris for the funeral of Ambroise Vollard (1868-1939). 
Travels intermittently to Royan and Paris before and during the first months of the war. 
Moves into the Hôtel du Tigre in Royan with Dora Maar; Marie-Thérèse and Maya remain in the Villa Gerbier-de-Jonc.
3 September. France enters the Second World War.

Takes a studio in Royan on the fourth floor of the Villa Les Voiliers.
16 May. Arrives in Royan, after numerous trips to Paris, with Dora Maar.
June. Finishes Woman Combing her Hair (Femme se coiffant) his most important Royan painting.
Autumn. Abandons his Paris apartment on the rue La Boétie and moves into the studio on the rue des Grands-Augustins for the duration of the war.

Marie-Thérèse Walter and Maya move into an apartment in Paris, on theboulevard Henri IV.
24-25 August. Leaves Royan definitively and returns to live in his Paris studio on the rue des Grands-Augustins. Begins sculpting again.

27 March.
Death of Julio González (1876-1942).
5 April. Creates a painting in homage to Julio González, Still Life with Skull (Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf).
4 May. Finishes painting L'Aubade (or The Serenade) (MNAM, Paris).
October. Publication of illustrations in a modern edition of Histoire Naturelle, an eighteenth-century text by Buffon (Georges Louis Leclerc, 1707-1788).

Gives Dora Maar a copy of Histoire Naturelle to which Picasso adds drawings; this idea becomes the subject for the 1957 publication of a book, 40 Dessins de Picasso en marge du Buffon.
May. Meets Françoise Gilot (born 1921), an artist who becomes his companion for ten years.
11 August. Attends, with Jean Cocteau, the funeral of the artist Chaim Soutine (1894-1943). 

5 March.
Max Jacob (1876-1944) dies in a concentration camp.
19 March. Participates with friends in the first performance of his own six-act play, Le Desir attrapé par la queue, at the Parisian home of Michel and Louise Leiris (53 bis, quai des Grands-Augustins).
Mid-August. Lives with Marie-Thérese and Maya on the boulevard Henri IV during the battle confrontations in Paris. 
25 August. Returns to his studio on the rue des Grands-Augustins after the liberation of Paris and the end of the Second World War.


Back to the Mediterranean

February. Starts The Charnel House (MOMA, New York) in reaction to the end of the Second World War. Christian Zervos photographs the painting's evolution
Spring. Creates curtain for the ballet Le Rendez-vous, first performed at the Théâtre des Champs-Elysées in Paris.
July. Travels to the Cap d'Antibes with Dora Maar. Buys a house for Dora Maar at Ménerbes, in the Vaucluse region.
November. Executes lithographic portraits of Françoise Gilot in the atelier of Fernand Mourlot (1895-1979).

 Is the subject of Picasso: Portraits et Souvenirs, a book written by Jaime Sabartés.
May-June. Creates a series of paintings and lithographs of Françoise Gilot in which she is portrayed as femme-fleur, or woman-flower.
Summer. Visits Nusch and Paul Éluard in Cannes. Vacations with Françoise in Ménebres and then Golfe-Juan.
27 July. Death of Gertrude Stein (1874-1946).
End of July. Visits Georges and Suzanne Ramié at the Madoura pottery studio in Vallauris and has three works thrown by Jules Agard, a potter at the factory.
September. Begins to work using whatever materials he can find in a space offered by Romuald Dor de la Souchère, the curator of the château d'Antibes (now the Musée Picasso, Antibes).
Autumn. Uses Mediterranean subjects such as sea urchins and fish in a series of still lifes. 
28 November. Death of Nusch Éluard (Maria Benz, 1906-1946).

1947 Works in Vallauris (1947-1954)
Continues to treat the theme of an owl on a chair in paintings and lithographs.
30 March. Creates lithographs inspired by the work of Lucas Cranach (1472-1553).
May. Gives ten major paintings to the Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris. Musée national d'art moderne/Centre de création industrielle (MNAM, Paris) at the request of curator Georges Salles and art historian Jean Cassou. 
15 May. Birth of Claude, Picasso's son with Françoise Gilot.
June. Departs with Françoise and Claude for Golfe-Juan.
Summer. Begins ceramic works at Vallauris at the Madoura ceramics factory of Georges and Suzanne Ramié.
December. Designs decor for a production of Sophocles's Oedipus Rex in Paris at the Théâtre des Champs-Elysées.

Is the subject of Visite à Picasso, a film made in Vallauris by the Belgian director Paul Haesaerts.
March. Illustrates the poetry of Pierre Reverdy in the Chant des Morts
Concentrates on ceramic production.
Summer. Moves with Françoise Gilot into the Villa La Galloise in Vallauris.
November. Exhibits 149 ceramic works in Paris at the Maison de la Pensée Française. 

January. Has sculptures published in Les Sculptures de Picasso, a book written by the art dealer Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler and photographed by Brassaï (Gyula Halasz, 1899-1990).
February. Creates an image of a dove that is chosen by the writer Louis Aragon (1897-1982) for the World Peace Congress.
19 April. Birth of Paloma, Picasso's daughter with Françoise Gilot.
20 April. Peace Congress opens in Paris at the Salle Pleyel.
Late spring. Returns to Vallauris and purchases the Fournas ateliers-several warehouses on the rue du Fournas which he transforms into atelier and storage space for painting, sculpture, and ceramics.

February. Paints works after Gustave Courbet (1819-1877) and El Greco (1541-1614). 
Sculpts more and more frequently in Vallauris, often incorporating mixed media and ordinary objects into his works; in ceramics, he creates a series of owls. 
25 June. Korean War begins.
9 July. Creates the lithograph of a dove later used for Second World Peace Conference held in Sheffield, England. 
6 August. Unveils his sculpture of a man with a sheep in the town square (or place du marché) in Vallauris.
November. Receives the Lenin Prize for Peace.

18 January.  Paints Massacre in Korea (Musée Picasso, Paris, MP 203) in reaction to the Korean War.Creates a series of lithographs inspired by knights and pages of the Middle Ages.
Summer. Is evicted from rue La Boétie in Paris; he purchases two apartments on the rue Gay-Lussac.

April-September. Paints a wall decoration in the fourteenth-century chapel of Vallauris on the theme of war and peace which he finishes in 1957.
18 November. Attends funeral in Paris of poet and friend, Paul Éluard (1895-1952).
25 November. Creates a lithographic series of portraits of the French writer, Honoré de Balzac (1799-1850).
December. Returns to Vallauris and finishes the two large panels of War and Peace (Vallauris, Temple de la Paix).

5 March. Is asked by Louis Aragon to draw a portrait of Stalin for the communist newspaper Les Lettres françaises to mark the Russian leader's death.
Summer. Makes a series of heads and busts inspired by Françoise.
August. Travels back and forth between Paris and Perpignan. 
Attends bullfights in Collioure and Perpignan.
September. Returns to Vallauris.
30 September. Françoise Gilot leaves Picasso; she moves to Paris with their children into an apartment on the rue Gay-Lussac.

March. Illustrates La Guerre et La Paix, a book by Claude Roy on the genesis of Picasso's paintings and interviews with him.
April. Meets Sylvette David (born 1934) who will model for him.
June. Paints portraits of Jacqueline Roque (1927-1986), who becomes his second wife in 1961.
July. Has pre-World War and post-World War paintings exhibited at the Maison de la Pensée Française in Paris. Picasso works loaned from the Shchukin collection are removed and returned to Russia shortly after the opening in fear of ownership controversies; Picasso offers substitutions.
Autumn. Creates works inspired by Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863), especially the Women of Algiers (or Femmes d'Algiers). 
Deaths of the French writer Maurice Raynal (1884-1954) and artists Henri Laurens (1885-1954), André Derain (1880-1954), and Henri Matisse (1869-1954).


Cannes and Vauvenargues

11 February.
Death of his first wife, Olga (Olga Khokhlova, 1891-1955) in Cannes.
June. Purchases and moves into a villa in Cannes, La Californie.
Summer. Is documented in a film Le Mystère Picasso made by Henri-Georges Clouzot (1907-1977) in Nice. 
Attends bullfights in Arles and Nîmes.
October. Renders the paysages d'intérieur (or landscape interiors) of his villa La Californie in a series of drawings, paintings, and graphic work.

February. Re-explores the theme of bathers in painting and sculpture.
Summer. Makes in Cannes a series of standing bathers in wood, which are cast in bronze by Valsuani.

Meets Norwegian sculptor Carl Nesjar (born 1920) with whom he collaborates on public and private sculpture commissions.
August. Starts a series of 58 paintings after Las Meninas by Diego de Silva y Velázquez that is finished before the end of the year and is later donated to the Museu Picasso in Barcelona in 1968. 
September. Depicts the dovecote with a view of the bay of Cannes in a series of works made at the villa La Californie.
15 October. Receives a commission from the Colegio Oficial de Arquitectos in Barcelona for a wall decoration. 
During the year, Jacques Frélaut takes over the printing studio and presses founded by Roger Lacourière in 1929.

Death in Barcelona of Picasso's sister Lola (1884-1958).
September. Finishes La Chute d'Icare, a wall mural for UNESCO in Paris. Buys the château de Vauvenargues, a castle remodeled in the seventeenth-century, near Aix-en-Provence, and the mountain of Sainte-Victoire frequently depicted by Cézanne.

Begins to work at Vauvenargues
5 June. Gives a bronze head of Dora Maar (Spies 197) in homage to Guillaume Apollinaire for a small monument in Saint-Germain-des-Prés, Paris.
August. Is inspired by Édouard Manet (1832-1883), particularly his famous painting, Déjeuner sur l'herbe, 1861-1863.
19 September. Inauguration of the Vallauris chapel decorated with Picasso's mural on the theme of war and peace. 
Prints posters from linocuts in a period of concentrated collaboration with Hidalgo Arnéra, a printer in Vallauris with whom he had worked since 1954.

Chooses women bathing or washing their feet as subjects for drawings and paintings. 
Continues works inspired by Manet's Déjeuner sur l'herbe, 1861-1863.


2 March. Marries Jacqueline Roque in Vallauris. 
Works in Cannes on a series of cut and painted sheet-metal sculptures.
June. Moves to a property in Mougins, Notre-Dame-de-Vie.
December. Exhibits 45 linocuts in Paris at the Galerie Louise Leiris.

1 May. Receives the Lenin Prize for Peace for the second time; the first time was in 1950. 
Continues working on his series of heads in sheet metal. Begins a decade-long period devoted largely to printing. Creates works inspired by Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665) and Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825).
August. Creates a set for the ballet Icare for the Paris Opera. 
Collaborates with Carl Nesjar on an enlarged concrete version of Femme aux bras écartés (or Woman with Outstretched Arms) for the garden of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler.

Repeats the theme of "The Painter and his Model" in a series of paintings from Mougins conceived in different states as if the works were engravings.
10 March. Opening of the Museu Picasso in Barcelona.
31 August. Death of the artist Georges Braque (1882-1963). Begins close collaboration with the printers Aldo (1931-2008) and Piero (1934-2001) Crommelynck who open a printing studio in Mougins and later produce the suites of 347 and 156 works, two of Picasso's most important graphic endeavors.
11 October. Death of Jean Cocteau (1889-1963).

Paints a series of approximately twenty canvases of Jacqueline Roque playing with a black cat found on the property in Mougins.
March. Re-explores the theme of the artist and his studio in a suite of nearly thirty paintings, mostly in gouache and ink.
October. Paints in Mougins a series of colorful schematic male heads. 
Is featured in a book, Conversations avec Picasso, written by Picasso's friend, the photographer Brassaï.

Works with sculptor Carl Nesjar on the large concrete figures inspired by Édouard Manet's Déjeuner sur l'herbe for the Moderna Museet in Stockholm.
October. Tries to prevent the publication of the French translation of Vivre avec Picasso, a book written by Françoise Gilot and Carlton Lake.

Creates his "musketeer" figures inspired by those of seventeenth-century Spain and Rembrandt (1606-1669).
August. Returns to engraving.
19 November. Exhibits sculpture in an exhibition, Hommage à Picasso, in Paris at the Grand and Petit Palais.

Refuses the French Légion d'honneur
Spring. Is forced to leave the atelier on the rue des Grands-Augustins in Paris. 
Is honored at the inauguration of his Tête de femme (or Head of a Woman), a large steel sculpture commissioned for the Chicago Civic Center.

13 February.
 Death of personal secretary and friend Jaime Sabartés (1882-1968).
May. Exhibits 58 paintings after Las Meninas by Diego de Silva y Velázquez at the Museu Picasso in Barcelona.
Autumn. Begins a series of works depicting a musketeer smoking a pipe that he will develop further.
December. Exhibits 347 engravings and etchings (printed by the Crommelynck brothers in their Mougins studio) on various subjects such as bullfighting, circuses, theater, and erotica in Paris at the Galerie Louise Leiris. A selection of these works is derived from Fernando de Rojas's literary figure La Celestina.

Continues his musketeer series, adding other figures and details such as swords, flowers, and birds.
March. Executes a series of seventeenth-century figures, mostly painted on cardboard.
October. Discusses with Yvonne and Christian Zervos the organization of an exhibition in Avignon at the Palais des Papes for the following year.

Donates a selection of his works, which had remained with his family in Spain, to the Museu Picasso in Barcelona.
1 May. Exhibits recent works (167 paintings, 45 drawings) at the Palais des Papes in Avignon in an exhibition organized by Yvonne Zervos (1905-1970) and Christian Zervos (1899-1970), who both died this same year.
12 May. Bateau-Lavoir in Paris, where he lived and worked from 1904 to 1909, is destroyed by fire. 

. Publication of an edition of Fernando de Rojas's La Célestine with a series of engravings by Picasso.
February. Donates a guitar construction from 1912 (Spies 27a), one of his first metal constructions, to director William Rubin for the collection of MOMA, New York.
25 October. Is honored on his 90th birthday with an exhibition in the Musée du Louvre's Grande Galerie of a selection of his works from public collections in France, the first time for a living artist. 

Draws a series of self-portraits resembling death masks.
1 December. Exhibits 172 recent drawings in Paris at the Galerie Louise Leiris.

Exhibits 156 engravings and etchings, a series of works from 1970 to 1972 (printed by the Crommelynck brothers), at the Galerie Louise Leiris in Paris.
8 April. Dies in Mougins at Notre-Dame-de-Vie and is buried two days later at Vauvenargues.